The relationship between ICT and social exclusion is dependent on the type of usage (helsper 2012). Exclusion from certain type of ICT usage will impact on social exclusion more than other types of usage (ibid). The economic and social impacts of ICT's are complex and contradictory and a direct impact on social exclusion is hard to measure (Gibbs 2001). However, the perception that digital inclusion will remediate social.
Exclusion remains within policy domains and is based on the assumption that ICTS are inherently inclusionary technologies'.
Bradshaw et al 2004 identifies the importance of distinguishing between macro drivers that increase social exclusion, risk factors that signal vulnerability to social exclusion and triggers that have a causal impact on social exclusion. Situating digital exclusion within this framework will be useful in electing the relationship between social and digital exclusion.
The exact relationship between digital and social exclusion remains poorly under
identifying Causality is difficult given that technology and society are deeply embedded and it is unclear how the two interact. For instance, few longitudinal studies have shown a change in individuals' Social Inclusion though a sustained engagement with ICT (Anderson 2005). However, the previously mentioned study by the phoenix centre 2009 does show the positive effects of digital participation on indicators of social exclusion. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether internet use in and of itself can help to overcome social exclusion as inegualities mediate access to the internet and types of internet use.