for a long time policy and practice has seen the key barriers to digital inclusion as:
The skills gap to use, or means to learn
A lack of internet and/ or device access
The motivation and confidence to use, understand or engage
These barriers are well documented (Helsper and Van Deursen, 2017: Helsper and Reisdorf, 2012; Dutton and Blank, 20011).
The reasons given for not having internet access in the household in 2017 was that they didn't need it (64%), followed by a lack of skills (20%). 2% also identified a physical or sensorial disability as a reason. other reasons include having access elsewhere, costs of equipment and privacy i security concerns.
The Digital exclusion heatmap shows several contributions to digital exclusion, including social factors such as age, education and income, as well as access to fast broadband and 4G connectivity.
Understanding these causal factors is key to identifying potential solutions.